CHAIN STORY FACILITATY AUDITORY, VISUAL, AND KINESTHETIC STUDENTS FOR LEARNING SPEAKING
(English Education Department of University of Islam Malang)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of chain story technique for visual, auditory, and kinesthetic as the learning style toward their speaking ability. Pre-Experimental design was used with three variables, chain story technique is the independent variable and speaking ability is dependent variable. Besides, learning style is the extraneous variable which potentially influences the dependent variable. This study was conducted in the second semester of English department of UNISMA comprising 22 students as selected to be the sample. Questionnaire and test were utilized as the instruments. The questionnaire was to classify the students learning style while the test was to investigate the significant effect of chain story technique for each style. The result could be seen by the mean of each style in both tests, it was showed that there is an improvement for the student who taught by chain story technique. However, the difference score among the style was not significant enough. It could be said that there was no significant difference among the styles. Through chain story, it proves to help the students improve their speaking skill whatever the students’ learning style because learning style had not significance effect for students speaking skill.
Key words: chain story technique, learning style, and speaking ability.
Speaking is a skill which is one of the important skills of student to master. Speaking skill is different than the other skill (listening, reading, and writing). Nunan (1999) said that speaking requires learners not only know how to produce specific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary (linguistic competence), but also that they understand when, why, and in what ways to produce language (sociolinguistic competence)
Brown (2001) stated that in speaking, student is not mean merely uttering words through mouth. It means conveying the message through the words of mouth. This skill is also neglected in classrooms. Students do not get any chance either in the classroom or outside to speak English. Speaking is not a part of examinations. Learning to speak also demands a lot of practice and attention. Learning to speak our mother tongue just by listening and repeating, the teacher can adopt the same natural way.
To most people, especially for foreign learners, mastering the art of speaking is the
single most important aspect of learning a second or foreign language, and success is
measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the language. Learning English
is different from learning Math. In Math learners just need to sit down and concentrate to the
problems and they master Math, but in English they need to practice a lot (Yunus, 2009). However, sometimes students feel difficult to learn how to speak English eventhough just repeating the teachers’ way to speak. According to Florez (1998) the usual problems faced by learners are psychological, social and linguistic obstacles can be scrutinized including fluency and accuracy, lack of confidence, and pronunciation.
Harmer (1991) suggests some reasons why students use mother- tongue in class. Firstly, when the students are asked to have a discussion about a topic that they are incapable of, if they want to say anything about the topic, they will use their own language. Another reason is that the use of mother- tongue is a natural thing to do. In addition, using the first language to explain something to another if there is no encouragement from the teachers. Finally, if teachers frequently use the students’ language, the students will feel comfortable to do it.
The other problems that sometime make the student difficult to learn speaking is they do not understand their learning style. When the learner consciously chooses strategies that fit his or her learning style and the L2 task at hand, these strategies become a useful toolkit for active, conscious, and purposeful self-regulation of learning.
Oxford (1992) explained that learning strategies are defined as specific actions, behaviors, steps, or techniques such as seeking out conversation partners, or giving oneself encouragement to tackle a difficult language task used by students to enhance their own learning.
Gilakjani (2012) stated that there are three main learning styles visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. Visual learners think in pictures and learn best in visual images. They depend on the instructor’s or facilitator’s non-verbal cues such as body language to help with understanding. Sometimes, visual learners favor sitting in the front of the classroom. They also take descriptive notes over the material being presented.
Considering getting better result in learning, the teacher must be more creative to present and facilitate the student with the appropriate way. There are many methods and techniques that can be chosen by the teacher. One of the popular methods is cooperative learning. Barkley et al., (2005) stated that cooperative learning techniques can be loosely categorized by the skill that each enhances, although it is important to recognize that many cooperative learning exercises can be developed to fit within multiple categories that include; discussion, reciprocal teaching, graphic organizers, writing and problem solving.
One of the categories is graphic organizers that concerns for converting complex information into meaningful displays. They can provide a framework for gathering and sorting ideas for discussion, writing, presentation, and research. One of the techniques within graphic organizers that appropriate to use in this research is chain story technique. Swenson (2012) in Febriana (2013) states that chain story is a great way to build confidence and get everyone involved.
According to Batta, 2000 chain story is a technique that can help students to be interested in speaking activity which make all the students’ knowledge active because they have to mentally think, argue, recall, and make sensible links. Chain story is a teaching technique that can make students enjoy and the speaking activity more interesting and easy for students because students become involved as a group during the speaking. Febriana (2013) concluded that Chain story is a great technique to build confidence, attention of the students because they involve in speaking activities.
Therefore, the researcher wants to conduct this research.From the explanation above, the researcher believes that chain story technique can give better progress for students’ speaking skill and students learning style can affect their significant result of their speaking score. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of chain story technique for visual, auditory,
and kinesthetic as the learning style toward their speaking ability.
This study used quantitative research because this study used the statistical measurement for data analysis and described the significance between two or more variables. The design used in this research was pre-experimental research that intended to find out the effect of using chain stories technique toward speaking ability. According to Cresswell (2008), experiment is to test an idea (or practice or procedure) to determine whether it influences an outcome or dependent variable.
In conducting pre-experimental research assigned to use one group only for experiment group without control group for comparing students speaking score by two measurements between pre-test and post-test in one group. In this research the students are divided to be three categories; they are visual, auditory, and kinesthetic students who are taught by chain story
The population of this study was the students of the second semester at English Education Department of University of Islam Malang academic year 2016-2017. The number of accessible population was 115 students, and it consisted of 5 classes. They were class II a, II b, II c, II d and class II e.The researcher decided to determine the cluster random sampling that was class II A
that consists of 22 students.
The instruments used in the research were questionnaire and test. The questionnaire was about the students’ learning style characteristics. The purpose of questionnaire was to find out in which type of learning styles (visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles) the students were. The test was conducted to measure the students’ speaking skill in both pre-test and post-test. The aim of the test was to compare the speaking score before and after the treatment. Giving pre-test was to know the students’ ability before the treatment. It was conducted by testing the student one by one. The test was about the creativity of the students in creating sentences orally.
The finding of the questionnaire interpreted that for about 63% of the population was auditory, 23% was kinesthetic and 14% student was visual. Among 22 students in the class A as the population, there were 14 auditory students, 5 kinesthetic students and 3 visual students. The finding of this study explained that chain story technique can improve the students’ speaking ability whatever their learning style whether auditory, visual or kinesthetic . Students learning style does not have significant influence for students’ speaking ability.
- The result of pre-test
|Valid N (listwise)||3|
- The result of Post-test
|Valid N (listwise)||3|
It could be seen from the result by the mean of each style in both tests. For auditory students’ score was 77.71 to 82.32 then visual students was from 76.67 to 78.33 and the last kinesthetic students was from 77.70 to 82.80. It could be conclude that chain story can make the students speaking ability better.
- The result of ANOVA
|Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
The result of ANOVA showed that was F score < F table (1.542 < 3.52), it could be said that there was no significant difference among the styles. However their speaking scores was different among auditory, visual, and kinesthetic they were in the same ability in speaking. It means whatever their learning style, they have the same chance to increase their speaking ability
by their own way
This study talked about students speaking skill by chain story technique for 3 styles of learning, they are auditory, visual and kinesthetic. Learning style became one of the factors to get success in absorbing the knowledge. Fleming (2001) defines learning style as “an individual’s characteristics and preferred ways of gathering, organizing, and thinking about information. It means that learning style is important to know and recognize by the students and teacher. The appropriate way to teach also needed to consider the students style. Therefore, to combine the variable among learning style, technique, and skill were need a research processes.
There were some steps to collect the data. The first was administering the questionnaire to get the students learning style whether they are visual, auditory or kinesthetic learners. The questionnaire contained 33 questions that are divided into three parts; for visual is question 1-11, auditory is question 12-22, and kinesthetic is question 23-33. It means that when students have higher score for part 1 than other parts, they are called visual learners and vice versa for part 2 and part 3. Before giving treatment, the researcher conducted the pre-test for the students as the second steps. The treatment was applying chain story technique, the first way was using huge class, each of students hold up one card and they must make one sentence that contain of something in the card and the sentence have to relate one to another sentence before and after. The second way that used in the treatment was divided the whole class to be some groups contains of 5-6 students for each, they must make a story based on the card had on the group. The last was post-test that was conducted after giving the treatment. The criteria of speaking assessment involving pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension.
After the data were collected, the researcher analyzed the data in two ways by using SPSS version 20. The first way was comparing means of speaking score for each style to see the improvement of the students’ ability before and after the treatment. Because of this study has three groups; therefore, the second way was using ANOVA formula to find out the significant different of each group after receiving the chain story technique and to know the students speaking skill.
Chain story technique was chosen because this technique combines some preferences of the students’ style. The researcher assumes that this technique can give the significant improvement for the students. It is in line with Smelcer (1989) believes that chain stories benefit the classroom environment. Students feel comfortable and at ease with the format. In relation to the previous study, the result for the current research supports the study conducted by Febrina (2012), it was found that there was significant effect of using chain stories technique toward speaking ability of the first year students at Islamic Senior High School Dar El Hikmah Pekan baru.
The conclusion was learning style did not give an effect of students speaking ability. In line with the result of another previous study by Faridah (2014) it found that there was no significance correlation between learning style and listening skill. Another study was investigated by Fahrudin (2012) in SMA Negeri 1 Tumpang. The purpose of the study was to find out significant correlation between learning style and speaking achievement. The finding of the study was that students’ learning styles had no correlation with students’ speaking score of
the third grade in SMA Negeri 1 Tumpang.
Finally, the conclusion of this study can be said that students’ speaking ability is improved by applying the chain story technique. However, it is not influenced by students’ learning style. Means that chain story technique is a suitable way to make the students interested in and get better result in speaking class in all learning style. The use of chain story technique could improve students’ speaking skill whatever the students’ learning style whether visual, auditory or kinesthetic leaners, because it had not significant effect on the students’ speaking skill. Chain story is the great technique to make students interested in learning speaking. In
addition, the activities in the technique support the students to get involved in class.
Related to the finding of the study, English teacher must recognize the students’ characteristic in learning to absorb the knowledge. As provider, facilitator, and controller, the teacher should know the need of the students in learning, and then use the appropriate way to teach that can be accepted by all students because they can give all the attention when they are interested in. In addition, getting involved in all activities that are support the lesson in a class will help the motivation. For further researcher it is suggested to construct the research about learning style in another skill such as reading, listening and writing. Using another methods and techniques are supports the research to testing the theories. Looking for other factors that can be influence students speaking skill. Conducting the research in other level of the student in senior or junior high school and add the number of the sample to get higher quality.
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