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WATCHING MOVIE EFFECT TOWARDS EXTROVERT AND INTROVERT LEARNERS’ SPEAKING SKILL

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WATCHING MOVIE EFFECT TOWARDS

EXTROVERT AND INTROVERT LEARNERS’ SPEAKING SKILL

 

Nikita Nurul Milati

Nikitanurul99@gmail.com

(English Education Department of University of Islam Malang)

 

Abstract: This study amis to investigated the effect of watching English movie toward speaking skill of extrovert and introvert learners and to examine whether students with different personality types have different ability in speaking after watching movie. This study applied pre-experimental design and quantitative research method to collect the data. The target population of this study was all of second semester students of English Department of UNISMA. Then, the researcher used the cluster sampling technique to randomly take one class as the sample of the study which consists of 26 students. The students were asked to answer the questionnaire, do the pretest, and do the posttest. The result showed that watching English movie gave any effect to extrovert and introvert learners’ speaking skill. Moreover, students with different personality types did not have different ability in speaking after watching English movie.

Key words: movie, personality type, speaking skill

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WATCHING MOVIE EFFECT TOWARDS

EXTROVERT AND INTROVERT LEARNERS’ SPEAKING SKILL

 

Nikita Nurul Milati

Nikitanurul99@gmail.com

(English Education Department of University of Islam Malang)

 

Abstract: This study amis to investigated the effect of watching English movie toward speaking skill of extrovert and introvert learners and to examine whether students with different personality types have different ability in speaking after watching movie. This study applied pre-experimental design and quantitative research method to collect the data. The target population of this study was all of second semester students of English Department of UNISMA. Then, the researcher used the cluster sampling technique to randomly take one class as the sample of the study which consists of 26 students. The students were asked to answer the questionnaire, do the pretest, and do the posttest. The result showed that watching English movie gave any effect to extrovert and introvert learners’ speaking skill. Moreover, students with different personality types did not have different ability in speaking after watching English movie.

 

Key words: movie, personality type, speaking skill

 

INTRODUCTION

Productive skill is the term form speaking and writing, skills where students actually have to produce language themselves (Harmer: 2007). It is clear that speaking is one of productive skills, therefore, practicing students’ speaking skill is really important in learning English. Through practicing students’ speaking skill, teacher will know how students’ capability in learning English.

To most people, especially for foreign learners, mastering the art of speaking is the single most important aspect of learning a second or foreign language, and success is

measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the language. Learning English

is different from learning Math. In Math learners just need to sit down and concentrate to the

problems and they master Math, but in English they need to practice a lot (Yunus, 2009; Yunus, 2015).

However, learning English as a foreign language will not be as easy as learning the mother tongue. So, teacher should have various ways in presenting the lesson and stimulating the students’ interest in English. Therefore, the English teacher needs instructional media to help them deliver the information or the lesson. Gagne et al., (1992) states that media is employed in a very board sense. When instructional design is developed from the very beginning, media presentations will be part of the design. However, existing media presentation are selected as part of a large instructional plan rather than being separately designed and developed. Cahyono (2011: 33) argues that one of the instructional media that can easily be used and inexpensive is movie. Cahyono (2011: 33) also claims that movie can arouse the learners’ interest and help them comprehend the lesson at the same time. Wahyuningsih (2011) as cited in Cahyono (2011) also argues that using movie is a wonderful way to make students talk and work at their simple grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation at the same time. Furthermore, with mixed activities in movie, such as dialogues, word repetitions, and songs, it is expected that students’ speaking abilities grow, their pronunciation gets better, and their awareness of the language improves.

Beside media, teacher needs to consider the factors from the students’ side. There are many factors that affect to students learning and might give any impacts to students’ achievement such as motivation, learning style, and personality types. In this study, the researcher only focuses on students’ personality types. It is generally considered to be the important factor that affect the success of students’ foreign language learning. Suliman (2014) claims that personality plays an important role in acquiring a second language. According to Ryckman (2004:89) as cited in Lestari et al., (2013), personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviours in specific situation. Wong (2011) also argues that personality type is a gateway through which teachers can manipulate the learning of their students. Moreover, Wilz (2000) cited in Boroujeni et al., (2015) argues that personality affect much on the learning way. Then, the perception of personality type can help teachers to understand the reason why students perform differently in class activities.

Eysenck (1965) as cited in Skehan (1989) divides personality into two types, they are extrovert and introvert. Each personality type has different characteristics, such as in society, activity, expansiveness, etc. Extroversion as a gregarious person. In the classroom, extrovert student is the talkative and outgoing student who participates freely in class discussion (Brown: 2006). Wong (2011) also argues that extrovert students, by virtue of their outgoingness, they easily communicate in English even though they might not produce accurate output. On the other hand, introversion is the extent to which a person derives a sense of wholeness and fulfillment apart from a reflection of this self from other people (Brown: 2006). Moreover, Jaili and Amiri (2015) as cited in Isnawati (2016) argues that introvert students could not think spontaneously, but they are good thinkers when they are still and unmoving. They prefer develop their own ideas internally rather than communicate with other people. They also like reading book to increase their own knowledge rather than speak up. However, although they are good thinker, they tend to be quiet because they anxious in facing different situation.

Therefore, the researcher conducts the research to find out the effect of watching English movie as learning media toward speaking skill of extrovert and introvert learners, and to investigate whether students with different personality types have different ability in speaking after watching English movie. Likewise, this study only investigates the students’ personality types and does not elaborate the degree of their personality types. Then, this study only focuses on students’ speaking skill rather than the other skills and components. Thus, the hypothesizes of this study are watching English movie gives any effects to extrovert and introvert students in their speaking skill, and students with different personality types have different ability in speaking after watching English movie.

 

METHOD

The researcher used experimental research design and quantitative research method to collect the data. Experimental research is a research design that used to investigate cause-effect relationship. Experimental research involves two or more variable that one variable becomes the cause (independent variable) and another variable becomes the effect (dependent variable). Kind of experimental research design that used in this research was pre-experimental research design because the researcher did not take the control group as like the other experimental designs.

Participants

The target population of this research was all of the second semester students of English Department with the total number of the population was 136 students. The researcher used cluster sampling technique. Thus, the researcher randomly took one class as the sample of the study which consists of 26 students.

Instrument

To collect the data, there were two instruments that used in this study, they were questionnaire and speaking test. Questionnaire was adopted from Brown (2002) and Cain (2012) which consisted of 20 statements with two optional answer, they were “yes” and “no”. For the speaking test, the test was scored using scoring rubric that was adopted from (Brown: 2001) which consisted of students’ pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, accuracy, and fluency.

Data Collection

There were some steps that used in collecting the data. The first, distributing the questionnaire in the class. The questionnaire was to determine students’ personality type whether they are extrovert or introvert. The second, conducting the pretest. It held before the treatment in order to know the students’ initial ability in speaking before getting the treatment. The next, giving the treatment to the students. The researcher taught speaking by using movie as the media, and retelling the story of the movie as the class activity to train students’ speaking skill. The last, conducting the posttest. It held after the treatment in order to know whether the treatment gave any effect to students’ speaking skill or not.

After all of the steps in collecting the data were done, then the data was analyzed. The researcher analyzed the students’ pretest and posttest score using SPSS version 20. Next, to know whether extrovert and introvert students have different speaking ability after learning by using movie, the data was analyzed by using independent t-test in SPSS version 20.

 

FINDINGS

After analyzing the data of the questionnaire, the result showed that from 26 students there were 12 students who had introvert personality and 14 students who had extrovert personality.

Then, since the pretest was scored by two raters, therefore, before analyzing the result of the pretest, the data from both raters need to be tested for its reliability. The estimating inter rater reliability used Kappa coefficient in SPSS version 20.

Table 1. The Result of Pretest Score Reliability

Symmetric Measures

Value Asymp. Std. Errora Approx. Tb Approx. Sig.
Measure of Agreement Kappa ,651 ,113 5,150 ,000
N of Valid Cases 26

 

In analyzing the pretest score reliability, the researcher got result at 0.651. Based on the categories of the reliability coefficient, the result 0.651 means that the score considered to be reliable and high criteria.

 

Table 2. Categories of the Reliability Coefficient

No                              Interval                                               Category
1                                  r < 0.20                                   Very low (Very weak)

2                            0.20 < r < 0.40                                     Low (weak)

3                            0.40 < r < 0.60                                       Moderate

4                            0.60 < r < 0.80                                    High (Strong)

5                                  0.80 < r                                  Very High (Very strong)

Mistar (2013), “Statistics for ELT Studies Book”.

Next, after analyzing the reliability of the pretest score from two raters, the following step was analyzing the extroverts and introverts students’ pretest score.

 

Table 3. The Result of Students’ Average Pretest Score

Descriptive Statistics
N Mean Std. Deviation
Extrovert 14 85,79 4,371
Introvert 12 85,50 4,852
Valid N (listwise) 12

 

The average score of extrovert learners was 85.79 and the average score of introvert was 85.50. The difference between extrovert and introvert learners was only 0.29. So, it was considered that the speaking skill of both extrovert and introvert students were the same before having the treatment.

For the posttest, before analyzing the result of the posttest, the data from both raters also need to be tested for its reliability. The estimating inter rater reliability used Kappa coefficient in SPSS version 20.

 

Table 4. The Result of Posttest Score Reliability

Symmetric Measures
Value Asymp. Std. Errora Approx. Tb Approx. Sig.
Measure of Agreement Kappa ,712 ,118 5,743 ,000
N of Valid Cases 26

 

The researcher got result at 0.712. It means that the score was considered to be reliable and high criteria.

Furthermore, after analyzing the reliability of the posttest score from two raters, the next step was analyzing the extroverts and introverts students’ posttest score.

Table 5. The Result of Students’ Average Posttest Score

Descriptive Statistics
N Mean Std. Deviation
Extrovert 14 90,07 3,990
Introvert 12 88,92 3,630
Valid N (listwise) 12

 

The average score of extrovert learners was 90.07 and the average score of introvert was 88.92. The difference between extrovert and introvert learners was so slight which is 1.15. It means the difference between extrovert and introvert is not significant.

Then, to prove whether any difference ability between the extrovert and the introvert students or not, the data was analyzed using independent t-test in SPSS version 20.

 

Table 4.7 The Result of Analyzing Independent t-test

Group Statistics
Personality N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
score Extrovert 14 90,07 3,990 1,066
Introvert 12 88,92 3,630 1,048

 

Independent Samples Test
Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means
F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
score Equal variances assumed ,004 ,951 ,767 24 ,451 1,155 1,506 -1,954 4,264
Equal variances not assumed ,772 23,896 ,447 1,155 1,495 -1,931 4,241

 

The result of independent t-test showed that the t-score was 0.767. Then, the researcher found that the df (degree of freedom) was 24. By the level of significant at 0.05, the critical t-value was 2.064. Based on the result above, it assumed that the t-score of independent t-test is lower than the t-table.

DISCUSSIONS

Based on the result of the finding, the data showed that there was an improvement score of extrovert and introvert students from the pretest to the posttest after having the treatment. It indicated that training students to retell the story after watching movie gave any effect to the extrovert and introvert learners’ speaking skill. So, it means that the null hypothesis was rejected and the alternative hypothesis was accepted. Thus, it can be concluded that train the students through retelling the story after watching English movie gives any effects to speaking skill of extrovert and introvert students.

For the result of independent t-test, the data showed that the t-score was lower that the t-table. If the t-score is lower than the t-table, it means that the alternative hypothesis is rejected and the null hypothesis is accepted. So, it can be concluded that students with different personality types do not have different ability in speaking after watching English movie.

Additionally, Harmer (2007) stated that there were some good reasons for encouraging students to watch movie, such as allowing students to see a linguistic behavior as like how intonation matches with facial expression and what gesture complement certain phrases, students can pick up a range of cross-cultural clues, and allowing students entry into a whole range of other communication worlds as like how different people stand when they talk to each other.

Finally, it can be concluded that the result of the study showed that training students to retell the story after watching English movie gave any effects to both extrovert and introvert students’ speaking skill. In the other side, there was no difference ability between extrovert and introvert students in speaking skill after watching English movie.

 

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

After distributing the questionnaire, conducting the pretest, giving treatment, conducting the posttest, and the last analyzing the data, finally the researcher got the result. It showed that the train students through retelling the story after watching English movie gave any effects to extrovert and introvert students’ speaking skill. However, another finding indicated that students with different personality types did not have different ability in speaking after watching English movie.

Based on the result of the study, the English teachers are suggested to recognize their students’ personality types in order to know what the appropriate teaching method and teaching media that can be used in teaching both extrovert and introvert students. Then, English teachers should not differentiate between extrovert and introvert students because they had the same opportunity in learning English. Since each learner has different personality type, so both extrovert and introvert learners are suggested to do not feel anxiety in learning English because each personality type has their own characteristics. Then, for the further researchers who are interested in investigating the similar research, they are suggested to elaborate the degree of students’ personality type also rather than only investigates their personality types. The further researchers are also suggested to conduct a research using other learning media or the other skills.

 

REFERENCES

Boroujeni, A.K.J. et al. 2015. The Impact of Extroversion and Introversion Personality Types on EFL Learners’ Writing Ability. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, (Online), Vol 5, January 2015. (http://dx.doi.org/ 10.17507/tpls.0501.29, accessed in 1st of April 2017)

 

Brown, H.D. 2001. Teaching by Principles An Interactive Approach to

Language Pedagogy (Second Edition). San Francisco: Longman.

 

—–, 2002. Strategies for Success: A Practical Guide to Learning English. San

Francisco: A Pearson Education Company.

 

—–, 2006. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (Fifth Edition). San

Francisco: Pearson Longman.

 

Cahyono, B.Y. & Kusumaningrum, S.R. 2011. Practical Techniques for English

Language Teaching. Malang: State University of Malang Press.

 

Cain, S. 2012. The power of Introvert in a World That Can’t Stop Talking.

United States: Crown Publishing Group.

 

Gagne, R.M. et al. 1992. Principles of Instructional Design. United States: Ted

Buchholz.

 

Harmer, J. 2007. The Practice of English Language Teaching (Fourth Edition).

United Kingdom: Ashford Colour Press Ltd.

 

Isnawati. 2016. The Comparative Study between Introvert and Extrovert Students’

Personality in the Presentation Performance at the English Department of University of Islam Malang. Malang: Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Islam Malang.

 

Lestari, A. et al. 2013. Analysis on the Relationship of Extrovert-Introvert Personality and

Students’ Speaking Performance. Pontianak: Teacher Training and Education English Study Program of Tanjungpura University, (Online). (http://download.portalgaruda. org, accessed in 1st of March 2017)

Mistar, J. 2013. Statistics for ELT Studies. Unpublised book. Malang: University

of Islam Malang.

 

Skehan, P. 1989. Individual Differences in Second Language Learning. United

Kingdom: Athenaeum Press Ltd.

 

Suliman, F.H.A. 2014. The Role of Extrovert and Introvert Personality

in Second Language Acquisition. International Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities, (Online), September 2014. (http://www.ocerint. org/Socioint14_ebook/papers/xx01.pdf, accessed in 1st of March 2017)

 

Wong, E. 2011. Extraversion and Introversion in Second-language Acquisition:

a literature review, (Online), 2011. (http://www.dent.nihonu.ac.jp /bulletin/kiyou39/39-1.pdf, accessed in 1st of April 2017)

 

Yunus, M. 2009. Improving Students’ Speaking Skill through Guided Questions with Inside Outside Circle Technique at the First Grade of SMA Wahid Hasyim Malang Islamic University of Malang. Teaching ESL, (Online), 2009. (https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/30917610/pro_2010_conaplin_muhammad_yunus.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1512601900&Signature=i00Z65wkUVzR8v%2B9YIMt9LuSoR8%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DImproving_Students_Speaking_Skill_throug.pdf

 

 

Yunus, M. 2015. Becoming Critical Thinkers: A Narrative Inquiry of Indonesian EFL Lecturers. IJJE, Vol 4 (2), pp. 326-339. (online) http://ijee.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/28.19011748.pdf

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Boroujeni, A.K.J. et al. 2015. The Impact of Extroversion and Introversion Personality Types on EFL Learners’ Writing Ability. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, (Online), Vol 5, January 2015. (http://dx.doi.org/ 10.17507/tpls.0501.29, accessed in 1st of April 2017)

 

Brown, H.D. 2001. Teaching by Principles An Interactive Approach to

Language Pedagogy (Second Edition). San Francisco: Longman.

 

—–, 2002. Strategies for Success: A Practical Guide to Learning English. San

Francisco: A Pearson Education Company.

 

—–, 2006. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (Fifth Edition). San

Francisco: Pearson Longman.

 

Cahyono, B.Y. & Kusumaningrum, S.R. 2011. Practical Techniques for English

Language Teaching. Malang: State University of Malang Press.

 

Cain, S. 2012. The power of Introvert in a World That Can’t Stop Talking.

United States: Crown Publishing Group.

 

Gagne, R.M. et al. 1992. Principles of Instructional Design. United States: Ted

Buchholz.

 

Harmer, J. 2007. The Practice of English Language Teaching (Fourth Edition).

United Kingdom: Ashford Colour Press Ltd.

 

Isnawati. 2016. The Comparative Study between Introvert and Extrovert Students’

Personality in the Presentation Performance at the English Department of University of Islam Malang. Malang: Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Islam Malang.

 

Lestari, A. et al. 2013. Analysis on the Relationship of Extrovert-Introvert Personality and

Students’ Speaking Performance. Pontianak: Teacher Training and Education English Study Program of Tanjungpura University, (Online). (http://download.portalgaruda. org, accessed in 1st of March 2017)

Mistar, J. 2013. Statistics for ELT Studies. Unpublised book. Malang: University

of Islam Malang.

 

Skehan, P. 1989. Individual Differences in Second Language Learning. United

Kingdom: Athenaeum Press Ltd.

 

Suliman, F.H.A. 2014. The Role of Extrovert and Introvert Personality

in Second Language Acquisition. International Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities, (Online), September 2014. (http://www.ocerint. org/Socioint14_ebook/papers/xx01.pdf, accessed in 1st of March 2017)

Wong, E. 2011. Extraversion and Introversion in Second-language Acquisition: a literature review, (Online), 2011. (http://www.dent.nihonu.ac.jp /bulletin/kiyou39/39-1.pdf, accessed in 1st of April 2017)

Yunus, M. 2009. Improving Students’ Speaking Skill through Guided Questions with Inside Outside Circle Technique at the First Grade of SMA Wahid Hasyim Malang Islamic University of Malang. Teaching ESL, (Online), 2009. https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/30917610/pro_2010_conaplin_muhammad_yunus.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1512601900&Signature=i00Z65wkUVzR8v%2B9YIMt9LuSoR8%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DImproving_Students_Speaking_Skill_throug.pdf

Yunus, M. 2015. Becoming Critical Thinkers: A Narrative Inquiry of Indonesian EFL Lecturers. IJJE, Vol 4 (2), pp. 326-339. (online) http://ijee.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/28.19011748.pdf

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